European governments must not oblige network operators to indiscriminately retain bulk customer communications data, the European Union’s top court reaffirmed today.

The ruling by the Court of Justice of the EU came in response to a question from the U.K.’s Court of Appeal, which is examining the legality of the U.K.’s 2014 Data Retention and Investigatory Powers Act, and a similar question from the Swedish telecommunications regulator.

But the ruling also calls into question the validity of the U.K.’s more recent Investigatory Powers Act, which .

That law requires telecommunications companies to retain communications data, including calls made and lists of websites visited, and make it available to tens of thousands of government employees, including tax inspectors and food safety regulators.

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